Sam'al was the capital of a Neo-Hittite i.e. Aramaen kingdom from about Xth century to VIIth century BC. It is situated on the western side of the valley at the Amanus Mountains.
- T. Bryce s.v. Sam'al, in: The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia, Routledge 2013, pp. 612-613
- op.cit, s. v. Zincirli Höyük
- E. Lipiński: The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion, Peeters Publishers, 2000
- A. K.Grayson, Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium B.C. II (858–745 B.C.), The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Periods (RIMA 3), University of Toronto Press 1996
- David Schloen, J. and Amir S. Fink, Searching for Ancient Samal: New Excavations at Zincirli in Turkey, Near Eastern Archaeology, vol. 72/4, 2009, pp. 203–219