Yadiya - Zincirli is the modern Turkish name of the ancient Sam`al.


  • City
  • visible
  • Location ± 25-100 m.
(see also PELAGIOS)



Kilamuwa Stela

Kilamuwa Stele foundat the entrance to Kilamuwa's palace

Victory stele of Esarhaddon

Stele was discovered in 1888 in Zincirli Höyük (Sam'al, or Yadiya) by Felix von Luschan and Robert Koldewey.

Sam`al (Zincirli Höyük)

Column base with double sphinxes from the royal palace at Samal. Currently in Istanbul Archeological Museum

Sam`al-Zincirli, Musicians

Late Hittite period wall relief


Surroundings (Panoramio)


Sam'al was the capital of a Neo-Hittite i.e. Aramaen kingdom from about Xth century to VIIth century BC. It is situated on the western side of the valley at the Amanus Mountains.


  3. T. Bryce s.v. Sam'al, in: The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia, Routledge 2013, pp. 612-613
  4. op.cit, s. v. Zincirli Höyük
  5. E. Lipiński: The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion, Peeters Publishers, 2000
  6. A. K.Grayson, Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium B.C. II (858–745 B.C.), The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Periods (RIMA 3), University of Toronto Press 1996
  7. David Schloen, J. and Amir S. Fink, Searching for Ancient Samal: New Excavations at Zincirli in Turkey, Near Eastern Archaeology, vol. 72/4, 2009, pp. 203–219