Tuttul was a religious centre which was strategically located so it could control the junction of the River Balikh in Syria with the Euphrate.The first urban settlement existed in the second half of the third millennium BC. Tuttul with its enclosure was provided with a fortified walls and a gate with a tower - bastion.
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- Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003), The archaeology of Syria. From complex hunter-gatherers to early urban societies (ca. 16,000–300 BC), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 255–256,
- Abraham Malamat,, Mari and the Bible, Leiden: Brill 1998, p. 92
- Manfred Krebernik, Tall Bi‘a/Tuttul-II. Die altorientalischen Schriftfunde, WVDOG 100, Saarbrücken 2001
- Strommenger, Eva, Kay Kohlmeyer, Muhammad Miftah, and Franciszek M. Stȩpniowski. Tall Bi'A/Tuttul. Saarbrücken: Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag, 1998.
- Marco Bonechi, On the Old Babylonian Tuttul Tablets, N.A.B.U. 1998 n°3 (Septembre) , pp. 78-79 - https://www.academia.edu/5256419