Karkemish has been inhabited since Neolithic times. It’s a place of strategic importance – controlled the main ford across the Euphrate. Karkamish may have been first occupied by Hittites for a short in XVIth century BC while during Mursili I. Later in the XV-XIV centuries remained under Mitanni - Hurri domination. Ca 1330 Supiliuluma I ca. (1370–1330 BC) made it into a vassal kingdom.
The site consists of a citadel, an inner town, and an outer town.
- Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa, University of California Pres 2006, pp. 169-171
- Nicolò Marchetti eds., Karkemish. An Ancient Capital on the Euphrates. OrientLab 2, Bologna Ante Quem 2014 - http://www.orientlab.net/pubs/pdf/Karkemish_OrientLab2_lt.pdf